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Precambrian of the Guiana Shield

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At the Geological and Mining Service of Surinam I was in charge of mapping the SW quadrant of the basement of Surinam, on the basis of data collected in the past, and on own surveys with a field crew of 20-25 people. We flew to laterite airstrips far into the uninhabited rainforest, and then travelled by dugout canoe to the selected areas. The last part was always on foot, 10-20 km away from the navigeable rivers along lines cut by our crew through the forest. It was my first experience in the tropical rain forest, and I have remained enthralled by it my whole life.

Brownsberg, Surinam

The high-grade metamorphic rocks I encountered in the Coeroeni-Lucie area were so interesting that I asked my former professor of petrology W.P. de Roever at the University of Amsterdam whether I could prepare a PhD thesis on it. Fortunately he agreed, and even came to visit me with his wife in the rainforest.

I reconstructed the metamorphic history of the metasedimentary rocks, found they went through an inverted loop from low-pressure to high-pressure amphibolite-facies and granulite-facies metamorphism, then a rather new phenomenon. Geochronology carried out by Prof. H.N.A. Priem at the ZWO Laboratorium voor Isotopengeologie gave ages around 1.8 Ga, ruling out any Archaean age, then a major point of discussion in the geology of the Guiana shield.

Colombian Amazonas

Later, while working in Colombia, I had the opportunity to study granulites in the Garzón massif, and could postulate on the basis of ages around 1.1 Ga obtained by Prof Cordani in Brazil that this metamorphic belt was probably the counterpart of a similar one at the eastern side of the North American craton. This was a first step towards the recognition of the Rodinia supercontinent in Grenvillian times by other authors. Moreover it showed that the persistent 1.1 ages given by micas in shear zones in Surinam recorded the Grenvillian collision in the Garzón belt at the western extremity of the Guiana shield.

Since 2009 I am involved in the production of the 1:1,000,000 map sheet NA.21 Tumucumaque of the Geological Map of South America, coordinated by CPRM (Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais, the Geological Survey of Brazil), and in the ABC (Agência Brasileira de Cooperação) project to map the border area between Suriname and Brazil.

Since February 2017 I have been appointed Endowed Professor at the Anton de Kom University of Suriname, in the section Mineral Resources of the Faculty of Technological Sciences. I am actively involved in supervision of Surinamese BSc, MSc and PhD student thesis research in the Precambrian basement, especially in the greenstone belt.

Main publications

  • Kroonenberg, S., S. Ramlal, X. Tjin-Asjoe, P. Mason, S. Kamo, S. Denyszyn, R. Ernst, M. Ibáñez-Mejía (2022). The 1.98 Ga Goboy dolerite: a new dyke swarm in northern Suriname. Proceedings 12th Inter Guiana Geological Conference, Georgetown, Guyana, 82-85.
  • Kroonenberg, S., T. Wong, G. Bijnaar, R. Finkie, K. Goenopawiro, S. Asneel, M. Lin-Tsung, R. Nanan, K. Ramdas, P. Sitaram (2022). Mercury background values in soils and saprolites in the gold-rich greenstone belt of Suriname, Guiana Shield: the role of parent rock and residual enrichment. Science of the Total Environment 848, 157631.
  • Gersie, K.S., Van Balen, R.T., Kroonenberg, S.B. (2021). The Interplay between Tectonic Activity, Climate and Sea-Level Change in the Suriname River Valley, Tropical South America. Quaternary 4, 11. pp 1-19.
  • Bonilla, A., Cramer, Th., De Grave, J., Alessio, B., Glorie, S., Kroonenberg, S.B. (2021). The NW Amazonian Craton in Guainía and Vaupes departments, Colombia: Transition between orogenic to anorogenic environments during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic. Precambian Research 360, pp 1-37.
  • Naipal, R., Zwaan, J.C., Kroonenberg, S.B., Kriegsman, L.M., Mason, P.R.D. (2020). Diamonds from the Nassau Mountains, Suriname. Journal of Gemmology, 37, 180-191.
  • Kroonenberg, S., M. Jebrak, A. Heuret (2020). Géologie protérozoïque du Bouclier des Guyanes. Géologues, 206, 13-20.
  • Jébrak, M. S. Kroonenberg, A. Heuret (2020). Les mines du Bouclier guyanais: esquisse historique et métallogénique. Géologues, 206, 30-35
  • Gourcerol, B., A.-S. Serrand, M. Chevillard, S. Kroonenberg (2020). Potentiel géologique du coltan en Guyane: état des lieux et perspectives sud-américaines. Géologues, 206, 49-53.
  • Huber, O., G. T. Prance, S. B. Kroonenberg, A. Antonelli (2018). The Tepuis of the Guiana Highlands. Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity, Wiley, pp. 339-353
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (2018). The Proterozoic basement of the western Guiana Shield and the Northern Andes. Geology and Tectonics of Northwestern South America - The Pacific-Caribbean-Andean Junction. Springer, pp. 115-192
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., D. Noordam (2017). Natural History and Ecology of Suriname, LM Publishers, Volendam. Geology, landforms and soils. In: B. De Dijn (ed.). LM Publishers, Volendam, p. 22-39
  • Fraga, L.M., Dreher, A.M., Kroonenberg, S.B., De Roever, E.W.F., Reis, N.J., Lago, A.L., Wong, Th.E., Xafi, J.J., Teixeira, S.G., Mansini, M.A. & Ramos, M.M.A.B. (2017). Explanatory note for the geological and mineral resources and geodiversity maps. Geology, landforms and soils. CPRM, Brasilia, 58 pp.
  • Fraga, L.M., U.Cordani, S. Kroonenberg, E. de Roever, S. Nadeau, V. Camara Maurer (2017). U-Pb SHRIMP new data on the high-grade supracrustal rocks of the Cauarane-Coeroeni Belt. Insights in the tectonic Eo-Orosirian evolution of the Guiana Shield. Anais do 15o Simposio de Geologia da Amazonia, Belém, Brasil, 486-490.
  • Kioe-A-Sen, N., M.J. van Bergen, Th. E. Wong, S.B. Kroonenberg (2016). Gold deposits of Suriname: geological context, production and economic significance. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences/Geologie en Mijnbouw 95, 429-445.
  • Naipal, R., S.B. Kroonenberg (2016). Provenance signals in metaturbidites of the Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield in Suriname. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences/Geologie & Mijbouw, doi:10.1017/njg.2016.9
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., De Roever, E.W.F., Fraga, L.M., Reis, N.J., Faraco, M.T., Cordani, U.G., Lafon, J.-M & Wong, Th. E. (2016). Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Guiana Shield in Suriname - a revised model. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences/Geologie & Mijbouw, 10.1017/njg.2016.10
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (2014). Geological evolution of the Amazonian Craton: forget geochronological provinces! Memorias Geological Map of South America Workshop, July 21-26 2014, Villa d Leyva, Colombia, p. 109-131
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. and C.V. Reeves (2012). Geology and Hydrocarbon potential Vaupés and Amazonas Basins. 92 pp., Volume 15 of Petroleum Geology of Colombia.
  • Kroonenberg, Salomon B. & Emond W.F. de Roever (2010). Geological evolution of the Amazonian Craton. In: Carina Hoorn and F.P. Wesselingh (eds). Amazonia, Landscape and Species Evolution: A Look into the Past. pp 9-28. ISBN: 978-1-4051-8113-6
  • De Roever, E.W.F., S.B. Kroonenberg, C. Delor, D. Phillips (2003). The Käyser dolerite, a Mesoproterozoic alkaline dyke suite from Surinam. Géologie de la France, No 2,3,4, 2003, 161-174
  • De Vletter, D.R., G.J.J.Aleva & S.B.Kroonenberg (1998). Research into the Precambrian of Surinam. In: Th.E. Wong et al. (eds), The history of earth sciences in Surinam Royal Neth Acad. Sci./ Neth. Inst. Applied Geosci . 15-64
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1994). De Nickerie orogenese in het Precambrium van Surinam. in: L. van der Steen (ed.) Recente geologische en mijnbouwkundige ontwikkelingen in Suriname. Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring Caraïbisch gebied, Amsterdam, 41-53
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1990). Geochemistry of the Garzón granulites in the Colombian Andes: Evidence for Proterozoic calc-alkaline magmatism. Symposium International. "Géodynamique Andine" 15-17 Mai 1990, Grenoble, France. pp. 383-385.
  • Priem, H.N.A, S.B. Kroonenberg, N.A.I.M. Boelrijk & E.H. Hebeda (1989). Rb-Sr evidence for the presence of 1.6 Ga basement underlying the 1.2 Ga Garzón - Santa Marta Granulite Belt in the Colombian Andes. Precambrian Research, 42: 315-324
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1983). Litología, metamorfismo y origen de las granulitas del Macizo de Garzón, Cordillera Oriental (Colombia). Geología norandina (Bogotá), 6:39-46.
  • Bosma, W., S.B. Kroonenberg, K. Maas & E.W.F. De Roever (1983). Igneous and metamorphic complexes of the Guiana Shield in Surinam. Geologie & Mijnbouw, 62:241-254.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1982). A Grenvillian granulite belt in the Colombian Andes and its relation to the Guiana Shield. Geologie & Mijnbouw, 61:325-333.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1980). Mármoles y rocas calcosilicatadas en el Macizo de Garzón cerca de La Jagua, Huila, Colombia. Geología norandina (Bogotá), 2, 11-16.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1978). Precambrian paleosols at the base of the Roraima Formation in Surinam. Geol. & Mijnb., 57:445-450
  • Priem, H.N.A., Boelrijk, N.A.I.M., Hebeda, E.H., Kroonenberg, S.B., Verdurmen, E.A.Th & Verschure, R.H. (1977). Isotopic ages in the high-grade metamorphic Coeroeni Group, southwestern Surinam. Geol. & Mijnb., 56, 155-160.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1976). Amphibolite facies and granulite-facies metamorphism in the Coeroeni-Lucie area, southwestern Surinam. PhD Thesis, Univ. Amsterdam; issued in Geol. Mijnb. Dienst Sur., Med. 25, 101-289.

Andean geology and volcanology

Colombian Andes

You cannot work in the Andes and not become impressed by the great variety of rocks encompassing almost the whole geological history of the earth. While my colleague Hans Diederix and I were teaching geological remote sensing techniques at the Centro Interamericano de Fotointerpretación in Bogotá, Colombia, we had ample opportunity in our field practicals with the students to make new geological discoveries, not only in the Precambrian.

So we found out that, being in the Andes, the general tendency to consider all volcanic rocks as andesites was erroneous. We found evidence for extensive Cenozoic rhyolitic ignimbrites emitted by an until then unknown caldera (Cutanga), and also described a new alkalibasaltic volcanic province with over 20 small and weathered scoria cones.

Poas Volcano, Costa Rica
Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

Main publications

  • Kroonenberg, S.B., J.G.M. Bakker & A.M. Van Der Wiel (1990). Late Cenozoic uplift history and paleogeography of the Northern Colombian Andes: Constraints for the evolution of high-Andean biota. Geologie & Mijnbouw 69:279-290
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., H. Pichler & C. Schmitt-Riegraf (1987). Young alkalibasaltic to nephelinitic volcanism in the southern Colombian Andes - Origin by subduction of a spreading rift? Zbl. Geol. Palaeont. Teil 1, 919-936.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. & H. Diederix (1985). Geology in: R.D. Drennan (ed.), Regional Archaeology in the Valle de La Plata, Colombia. Research Repts 11, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Techn. Rep. 16, 23-40
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., H. Pichler & H. Diederix (1982). Cenozoic alkalibasaltic to ultrabasic volcanism in the Uppermost Magdalena Valley, South-central Huila Department, Colombia. Geología norandina (Bogotá), 5: 19-26.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. & H. Diederix (1982). Geology of South-Central Huila, Uppermost Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Field Guide 21st Annual Field Conference Colomb. Soc. Petroleum Geol. & Geophys., 39 p., 1 map.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., A. Leon, J.M. Pastana & M.R. Pessoa (1980). Ignimbritas plio-pleistocénicas en el suroeste del Huila, Colombia, y su influencia en el desarrollo morfológico. Memoria Primer seminario sobre el Cuaternario de Colombia, Revista CIAF (Bogotá) 6, 1-3, 293-314.

Remote Sensing

Infrared aerial photograph of coal fires in Xingjiang, China

My main job at the Centro Interamericano de Fotointerpretación (CIAF) in Bogotá, Colombia was teaching Remote sensing, including Geological Photointerpretation in nine-month specialisation courses to geologists from all over Latin-America, usually with a fellowship from the Dutch government. I had very limited knowledge of this field when I got the job, but a six-week crash course at ITC in Enschede, the mother institute of CIAF, gave me enough background to stay ahead of my students at least a few weeks…

Digital terrain model with coal fires from thermal RS imagery

I have always liked remote sensing because of the comprehensive view of landforms and geological structures you get, but I also had the feeling that it was a bit sterile without "ground truth", as remote sensing geologists have come to call the field geology. No satellite study without a microscope.

In my later jobs, remote sensing was never again mainstream, but I have always held up a thin line with researchers at ITC, including two Chinese PhD students, and promoted its use wherever possible.

Burning coal layers, Xinjiang, China
Red-burnt coal layers, Xinjiang, China

Main publications

  • Zhang Xiangmin, S. B. Kroonenberg and Cor B. De Boer (2004). Dating Coal Fires In Xinjiang, Northwest China. Terra Nova 16, 2: 68-74
  • Zhang, X., J.L. van Genderen, H.Y. Guan and S.B. Kroonenberg (2003). Spatial analysis of thermal anomalies from airborne multispectral data. Int J, Remote Sensing 2003, 24:3727-3742
  • Yang, H., J.Zhang, F. Van Der Meer & S.B.Kroonenberg (2000). Imaging spectrometry data correlated to hydrocarbon microseepage. Int.J. Remote sensing 31:197-202
  • Yang, H., F.D. van der Meer, J. Zhang & S.B.Kroonenberg (2000). Direct detection of onshore hydrocarbon microseepages by Remote Sensing Techniques. Remote sensing reviews, 18: 1-18.
  • Yang, H., Zhang, J., Van Der Meer, F. & Kroonenberg, S.B. (1999). Spectral characteristics of wheat associated with hydrocarbon microseepages. International Journal of Remote Sensing,, 20:807-813
  • Yang, H., Zhang, J., Van Der Meer, F. & Kroonenberg, S.B. (1999). Geochemistry and field spectrometry for detecting hydrocarbon microseepage. Terra Nova 10:231-235.
  • Zhang Xiangmin, John Van Genderen S. B. Kroonenberg (1997). A method to evaluate the capability of Landsat-5 TM band 6 data for sub-pixel coal-fire detection. Int. J.Remote Sensing 18:3279-3288.
  • Goossens, M.A. & S.B. Kroonenberg (1994). Spectral discrimination of contact metamorphic zones and its potential for mineral exploration. Remote Sensing for the Environment 47:331-344
  • Epema, G.F. & S.B. Kroonenberg (1992). Ground reflectance of natural bare and pure surfaces as an aid in the interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper data in S. Tunisia. Adv. Space Res. 12: (7)39-(7)42
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1983). Aportes de la teledetección a la geomorfología. Memoria Primer Simposio Colombiano sobre Sensores Remotos, Bogotá, 1981. Revista CIAF (Bogotá), 8:337-345.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1983). The contribution of remote sensing to geomorphology. in: R Mower, M. Ardila & W.A. Dando (eds) Selected papers from the first Colombian Symposium on Remote Sensing. Inst. Remote Sensing, Univ. North Dakota publ., 44-48.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., & P.J. Melitz (1983). Summit levels, bedrock control and the etchplain concept in the basement of Surinam. Geologie & Mijnbouw, 62:389-399.
  • Khobzi, J., S.B. Kroonenberg, P. Faivre & A. Weeda (1980). Aspectos geomorfológicos de la Amazonia y Orinoquia colombianas. Revista CIAF, Bogotá, 5,1, 97-126.

Sediment geochemistry

Yusengi: Confluence of rivers with granitic sediment (yellow, left) and volcanic sediment (brown, right) Caucasus, Russia

When I started to work at Wageningen Agricultural University I was impressed by the legacy of the late Prof. C.H. Edelman, who with his 1933 PhD thesis established the tradition of heavy minerals in provenance studies in the Netherlands. But I did not like the tedious routine of counting hundreds of slides, and sought to more modern ways to characterise sediments.

SAM total: Chemical composition depends upon tectonic setting

At the same time concern about polluted soils and sediments started to come up, so I decided to use the existing X-ray fluorescence facilities for both purposes. That was necessary, because in those early days of soil and sediment quality the notion that background values for heavy metals and other elements in sediments were strongly dependent upon primary mineralogical composition was still not common knowledge. This started a series of projects together with the Rijks Geologische Dienst (RGD) and Rijkswaterstaat, which continued until I left for Delft University of Technology, but the line of research continues at RGD (now TNO).

Main publications

  • Aseyeva, E.N., N. S. Kasimov, S. B. Kroonenberg & G. J. Weltje (2004). Drainage basin controls on geochemical heterogeneity of modern stream sediments in the Guadalhorce basin (Spain) in: Sediment transfer through the fluvial system. IAHS Publ. 2004. IAHS Publ. 288, p. 187-195
  • Winkels H.J., G. Blom, S.B. Kroonenberg, L. Lijklema (1998). Dilution of riverine heavy metal input concentrations by suspension of sediments and algal growth in the IJsselmeer. Water Research 32: (10) 2931-2940
  • Tebbens, L.A., A. Veldkamp, S.B. Kroonenberg (1998). The impact of climate change on the bulk and clay geochemistry of fluvial residual channel infillings: the Late Weichselian and Early Holocene River Meuse sediments (The Netherlands). Journal of Quaternary Science, 13 :345-356.
  • Korobova, E.M., P. Ketner, S.B. Kroonenberg & A. Veldkamp (1997). Element partitioning in sediments, soil and vegetation in an alluvial terrace sequence, Limagne Rift Valley, France. A landscape geochemical study. Catena 31:91-117
  • Huisman, D.J., F.J.H. Vermeulen, J. Baker, A.Veldkamp, S.B. Kroonenberg, G.Th. Klaver (1997). A geological interpretation of heavy metal concentrations in soils and sediments in the southern Netherlands. J. Geochemical exploration 59:163-174
  • Tebbens, L., S.B. Kroonenberg, M.W. Van Den Berg (1995). Compositional variation of detrital garnets in Quaternary Rhine, Maas and Baltic River sediments. Geologie & Mijnbouw, 74, 213-224
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1994). Effect of source rock, sorting and weathering on the geochemistry of fluvial sands from different tectonic and climatic environments. in: F. Kumon & K.M. Yu (eds) Sandstone Petrology in relation to tectonics. Proceedings 29th International Geological Congress, Kyoto, Japan, 69-81. VHS Publishers, Zeist.
  • Winkels, H.J., J.P.M. Vink, J.E.M. Beurskens & S.B. Kroonenberg (1993). Degree of pollution of the sediments in Lake Ketelmeer and lake IJsselmeer as affected by the river Rhine. Applied Geochemistry, Suppl. Issue 2:95-101.
  • Veldkamp, A., & S.B. Kroonenberg (1993). The application of bulk sand geochemistry in Quaternary research. A methodological study of the Allier and Dore sands (Limagne, France). Applied geochemistry, 8:177-187
  • Hakstege, A.L., S.B. Kroonenberg & H. Van Wijck (1993). Geochemistry of Holocene clays of the Rhine and Meuse rivers in the Central-Eastern Netherlands. Geologie & Mijnbouw 71:301-315
  • Moura, M.L. & S.B. Kroonenberg (1990). Geochemistry of Quaternary fluvial and eolian sediments in the southeastern Netherlands. Geologie en Mijnbouw. 69:359-373
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., M.C. Hoorn, M.L. Moura & A. Veldkamp (1990). Variability in bulk geochemistry of fluvial terrace sands: consequences for the study of weathering chronosequences. Pedologie, 40-1:19-31.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. (1990). Geochemistry of Quaternary fluvial sands from different tectonic regimes. Chemical Geology. 84: 88-91.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B. & M.C. Hoorn (1990). Bulk geochemistry of Tertiary and Quaternary fluvial sands in the Colombian Amazones. Chemical Geology. 84: 92-95.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., M.L. Moura & A.T.J. Jonker (1988). Geochemistry of the sands of the Allier river terraces. France Geologie & Mijnbouw, 67:75-89

Cenozoic fluviodeltaic sedimentation

Rhine terraces

My main job at Wageningen Agricultural University was teaching geology and geomorphology to undergraduate students in soil science, irrigation and drainage engineering, forestry, landscape architecture and biology. Soil genesis is an important subject to soil science, but it has always bothered me that so few means of dating soil processes exist, a problem that persists until today.

The best way to get to grips with progressive soil formation is to study soils on sediments of different ages. River terraces form an excellent environment for this because they are regularly spaced above each others and reflect the combined cyclicities of variations in discharge and sediment load forced by the alternation of glacials and interglacials. We therefore started a students" project in the Limagne graben, in France, where nice soil chronosequences can be studied. I had already embarked on the subject before with two PhD students, Jos Bakker and Marian van der Wiel, in the framework of the EcoAndes project in Colombia.

River terraces do not only give a nice picture of Quaternary uplift, climate change and sedimentation history, but also is a good subject for numerical modelling of terrace morphology and sedimentation. In later years this approach was much extended, and continues under the leadership of Tom Veldkamp in Wageningen and in our present team in Delft.

Main publications

  • Storms, E.A., R.M. Hoogendoorn, M.A.C Dam, A.J.F. Hoitink and S.B. Kroonenberg (2005). Late-Holocene evolution of the Mahakam delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sedimentary Geology 180, 149-166
  • Tebbens, L.A., A. Veldkamp & S.B. Kroonenberg (2000). Natural compositional variation of residual channel infillings in the river Meuse lower reach. Neth. J. Geosci 79: (4) 391-409
  • Tebbens, L.A., A. Veldkamp, W.Westerhoff & S.B. Kroonenberg (1999). Fluvial incision and channel downcutting as a response to Late Glacial and Early Holocene climate change: the lower reach of the River Meuse, the Netherlands. J. Quat. Sci.,14: 59-75
  • Veldkamp, A., & S.B. Kroonenberg (1993). The Late Quaternary terrace chronology of the Allier. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 72:179-192
  • Lenselink, G., S.B. Kroonenberg, and G. Loison (1990). Pleniglacial to Holocene Paleo-environments in the Artière Basin in the Western Limagne Rift Valley, Massif Central, France. Quaternaire 2, pp. 131-148.
  • Boll, J, T.J. M. Thewessen, E.L. Meijer & S.B. Kroonenberg (1988). A simulation of the development of river terraces. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 32,1, 31-45.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., R.M. Van Den Berg Van Saparoea & A.T.J. Jonker (1987). Late Glacial and Holocene development of semi-closed depressions (thaw lakes?) in the Limagne Rift Valley, French Central Massif. Geologie & Mijnbouw 66, 4: 297-311.

Caspian Sea Level Change

Volga Delta sedimentation, Russia

Since 1991 my interest in fluviodeltaic processes has been increasingly focussed on the Caspian Sea. Processes in rivers and deltas are much dependent upon sea-level change, and as the Caspian Sea is a closed basin in which sea level may rise and fall a hundred time faster than in the oceans, it is a fantastic natural laboratory for the interaction between riverine and marine processes. We have developed an excellent working relation with Prof. N.S. Kasimov, dean of the Faculty of Geography of Moscow State University, and his staff, as well as with Dr. Aleksandr Gorbunov of the Astrakhan Nature Reserve, Dr. Elmira Aliyeva Dr. Dadash Huseynov and Prof. Ibrahim Guliyev of the Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, and growing numbers of scientists in all other Caspian countries.

Caspian sea level rise, Dagestan

Whereas in my Wageningen years the attention was mainly focussed on sediment dynamics and sediment geochemistry, from my appointment in Delft onward the subject has extended to the subsurface characterisation of fluviodeltaic hydrocarbon reservoirs, especially in the South Caspian Basin. Aspects of marine geology, geophysics, sequence stratigraphy, palaeoclimatology and numerical simulation of fluviodeltaic processes are now closely integrated in a number of ongoing projects, funded by national and European funding agencies and industry. Yearly meetings of Caspian scientists are facilitated in a UNESCO IGCP programme Dating Caspian Sea Level Change.

Mud volcano, Azerbaijan
Mud volcano, Azerbaijan
Mud volcano, Azerbaijan
Mud volcano, Azerbaijan

Main publications

  • Koriche, S.A., J.S. Singarayer, H. L. Cloke, P. J. Valdes, F. P. Wesselingh, S.B. Kroonenberg, A. D. Wickert, T. A. Yanina (2022). What are the drivers of Caspian Sea level variation during the late Quaternary? Quaternary Science Reviews 283, 107457.
  • Van de Velde, S., F. P. Wesselingh, T. A. Yanina, V.V. Anistratenko, T. A. Neubauer, J. J. ter Poorten, H.B. Vonhof, S.B. Kroonenberg (2019). Mollusc biodiversity in late Holocene nearshore environments of the Caspian Sea: A baseline for the current biodiversity crisis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 535, 109364.
  • Krijgsman, W., A. Tesakov, T. Yanina, S. Lazarev, G. Danukalova, C.G.C. Van Baak, J. Agustí, M.C. Alçiçek, E. Aliyeva, D. Bista, A. Bruch, Y. Büyükmeriç, M. Bukhsianidze, R. Flecker, P. Frolov, T.M. Hoyle, E.L. Jorissen, U. Kirscher, S.A. Koriche, S.B. Kroonenberg, D. Lordkipanidze, O. Oms, L. Rausch, J. Singarayer, M. Stoica, S. van de Velde, V.V. Titov, F.P. Wesselingh (2019). Quaternary time scales for the Pontocaspian domain: interbasinal connectivity and faunal evolution. Earth-Science Reviews 188, pp. 1-40.
  • Tkachenko, A.N., M.I. Gerasimova, M.Yu. Lychagin, N.S.Kasimov, S.B. Kroonenberg (2016). Bottom sediments in deltaic shallow-water areas - are they soils? Geography, Environment, Sustainability 9,3, 40-52.
  • Ramezani, E., A. Mrotzek, M. R. M. Mohadjer, A. A. Kakroodi, S. B Kroonenberg, H. Joosten (2016). Between the mountains and the sea: Late Holocene Caspian Sea level fluctuations and vegetation history of the lowland forests of northern Iran. Quaternary International, DOI: 0.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.041
  • Kakroodi, A.A., S.A.G. Leroy, S.B. Kroonenberg, H.A.K. Lahijani, H. Alimohammadian, I. Boomer, A. Goorabi (2015). Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change and coastal paleoenvironment evolution along the Iranian Caspian shore. Marine Geology 361, 111-125.
  • Richards, K., N.S. Bolikhovskaya, R. M. Hoogendoorn, S.B. Kroonenberg, S.A.G. Leroy, J. Athersuch (2014). Reconstructions of deltaic environments from Holocene palynological records in the Volga delta, northern Caspian Sea. The Holocene, 24(10) 1226-1252.
  • Leroy, S.A.G., A.A. Kakroodi, S. Kroonenberg, H.K. Lahijani, H. Alimohammadian, A. Nigarov (2013). Holocene vegetation history and sea level changes in the SE corner of the Caspian Sea: relevance to SW Asia climate. Quaternary Science Reviews, 70, 28-47.
  • Kakroodi, A.A., S.B. Kroonenberg, A. Naderi Beni, and A. Noehga (2013). Short- and Long-Term Development of the Miankaleh Spit, Southeast Caspian Sea, Iran. Journal of Coastal Research, doi:
  • Kakroodi, A.A., S.B. Kroonenberg, A. Goorabi, and M. Yamani (2013). Shoreline Response to Rapid 20th Century Sea-Level Change along the Iranian Caspian Coast. Journal of Coastal Research. doi:
  • Kakroodi, A.A., S.B. Kroonenberg, R.M. Hoogendoorn, H. Mohammd Khani, M. Yamani, M.R. Ghassemi, H.A.K. Lahijani (2012). Rapid Holocene sea-level changes along the Iranian Caspian coast. Quaternary International 263, 93-103
  • Kroonenberg, Salomon B., Nikolay S. Kasimov, Mikhail Yu. Lychagin (2008). The Caspian sea: a natural laboratory for sea-level change. Geography, Environment, Sustainability 1,1, 22-37
  • Storms, J.E.A., S.B. Kroonenberg (2007). The impact of rapid sea level changes in recent Azerbaijan beach ridges. J. Coastal Res., 23,2, 521-527.
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., G. M. Abdurakhmanov, E.N. Badyukova, K. van der Borg, A. Kalashnikov, N.S. Kasimov, G.I. Rychagov, A.A. Svitoch, H.B. Vonhof, F.P. Wesselingh (2007). Solar-forced 2600 BP and Little Ice Age highstands of the Caspian Sea. Quaternary International, 173-174, 137-143
  • Svitoch, A.A., E.N. Badyukova, S.B. Kroonenberg, O.B. Parunin, H.B. Vonhof (2006). Radiocarbon dating of mollusk shells from marine deposits of the dagestan Coast of the Caspian Sea (the Turaly area). Bull. Moscow State University, Series 5, Geography, 2006, p. 13-21 (In Russian with English summary)
  • Allen, M.B., Andy C. Morton, C. Mark Fanning, Arif J. Ismail-Zadeh & Salomon B. Kroonenberg (2006). Zircon age constraints on sediment provenance in the Caspian region. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 163, 2006, pp. 647-655.
  • Kroonenberg S.B., M. D. Simmons, N. I. Alekseevski, E.Aliyeva, M.B. Allen, D.N. Aybulatov, A. Baba-Zadeh, E.N. Badyukova, C.E. Davies, D.J. Hinds, R.M. Hoogendoorn, D. Huseynov, B. Ibrahimov , P. Mamedov, I. Overeem, G.V. Rusakov†, S. Suleymanova, A.A. Svitoch, S.J. Vincent (2005). Two deltas, two basins, one river, one sea: The modern Volga delta as an analogue of the Neogene Productive Series, South Caspian Basin. In: L. Giosan and J. Bhattacharya (Eds) River Deltas - Concepts, models and examples Special Volume SEPM 83, 231-256
  • Hoogendoorn, R.M., J.F. Boels, S.B. Kroonenberg, M.D. Simmons, E. Aliyeva, A.D. Babazadeh, D. Huseynov (2005). Development of the Kura delta, Azerbaijan; a record of Holocene Caspian sea level changes. Marine Geology 222-223: 359-380
  • Vonhof, H., M.S. Kasatenkova, N.S. Kasimov, S.B. Kroonenberg, M.Yu. Lychagin and V. Yu. Slobodyan (2004). Isotopic composition of biogenic carbonates and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions of the western Caspian seashore. Doklady Earth Sciences, 394: 145-147.
  • Hinds, D.J., E. Aliyeva, M.B. Allen, C.E. Davies, S.B. Kroonenberg, M.D. Simmons, S.J. Vincent (2004). Sedimentation in a discharge-dominated fluvial-lacustrine system: the Neogene Productive series of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21:613-138
  • Overeem, I., S.B.Kroonenberg, A.Veldkamp, K. Groenesteijn, G. V. Rusakov, A.A. Svitoch (2003). Small-scale stratigraphy in a large ramp delta: recent and Holocene sedimentation in the Volga delta, Caspian Sea. Sed. Geol 159: 133-157
  • Overeem, I., L.A. Tebbens, A. Veldkamp and S.B. Kroonenberg (2003). Modelling Holocene stratigraphy and depocentre migration of the Volga delta due to Caspian Sea level change. Sedimentary Geology 159:159-175
  • Morton, A., M. Allen, M. D Simmons, F. Spathopoulos, J. Still, D. Hinds, A. Ismail-Zadeh and S.B. Kroonenberg (2003). Provenance patterns in a neotectonic basin: Pliocene and Quaternary sediment supply to the South Caspian. Basin Research, Basin Research, 15, 3 , 321-337
  • Storms, J.E.A., G.J. Weltje, J.J. van Dijke, C.R. Geel & S.B. Kroonenberg (2002). Process-response modeling of wave-dominated coastal systems: simulating evolution and stratigraphy on geological timescales. J. Sed. Research 72,2:226-239
  • Kroonenberg, S.B.,, E.N. Badyukova, J.E.A. Storms, E. I. Ignatov, N.S. Kasimov (2000). A full sea-level cycle in sixty-five years: barrier dynamics along Caspian shores. Sedimentary Geology 134:257-274
  • Winkels, H.J., S.B. Kroonenberg, M.Yu. Lychagin, R.Marin, G.V. Rusakov, N.S.Kasimov (1998). Geochronology of priority pollutants in the Volga and Danube delta as compared with the Rhine delta. Applied geochemistry 13, 5:581-591
  • Kroonenberg, S.B., G.V. Rusakov, A.A.Svitoch (1997). The wandering of the Volga delta: a response to rapid Caspian Sea-level changes. Sedimentary Geology 107:189-209
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